• Health

    About Sleep & Insomnia

    A sleep disorder is a disruptive pattern of sleep that may include difficulty falling or staying asleep, falling asleep at inappropriate times, excessive total sleep time, or abnormal behaviors associated with sleep.

    More than 100 different disorders of sleeping and waking have been identified. They can be grouped within 4 main categories: problems with staying and falling asleep, problems with staying awake, problems with adhering to a regular sleep schedule, and sleep disruptive behaviors.

    Abnormal behaviors during sleep are called parasomnias, and are fairly common in children. They include:

    • Sleep terror disorder
    • Sleep walking

    REM behavior disorder (a type of psychosis can develop related to lack of REM sleep and lack of dreaming)
    Sleep terror disorder is an abrupt awakening from sleep with fear, sweating, rapid heart rate, and confusion. Sleep walking is not remembered by the person doing it and affects children 2 to 12 years old. In adults, it may also be caused by an organic brain syndrome, reactions to drugs, psychopathology and medical conditions.


    • Awakening in the night
    • Difficulty falling asleep
    • Excessive daytime drowsiness
    • Loud snoring
    • Episodes of stopped breathing
    • Sleep attacks during the day
    • Daytime fatigue
    • Depressed mood
    • Anxiety
    • Difficulty concentrating
    • Apathy
    • Irritability
    • Loss of memory (or complaints of decreased memory)
    • Lower leg movements during sleep

    Note: The symptoms may vary with the particular disorder.

    • Signs and tests
    • Multiple sleep latency test
    • Polysomnography
    • Treatment

    Insomnia – The treatment is related to the cause, if it is determined. If there is an obvious physical or psychological cause, it is treated. Attempts to control environmental and lifestyle factors such as too much light, noise, caffeine or other stimulants, or erratic hours of wakefulness should be made. Sleeping drugs should be used only when prescribed by a health care provider.

    Hypersomnia – Sleep apnea is treated with weight reduction and the administration of air under pressure through the nose. Occasionally, surgery or other measures may be needed. Narcolepsy is treated with stimulating medications during the daytime. Restless leg syndrome is treated by treating the underlying disorder and with opiate or dopaminergic agonists.

    Parasomnias – Night terrors are treated with hypnosis, guided imagery techniques and benzodiazepines, but safety measures are needed to prevent people from harm during nighttime walking.

    * Excerpts compiled from A.D.A.M., Inc.

  • Health

    Problems with Staying and Falling Asleep


    Insomnia includes any combination of difficulty with falling asleep, staying asleep, intermittent wakefulness, and early-morning awakening. Episodes may be transient, short-term (lasting 2 to 3 weeks), or chronic. Illness, depression, anxiety, stress, poor sleeping environment (e.g., noise or too much light), caffeine, abuse of alcohol, medications, heavy smoking, physical discomfort, daytime napping, certain medical conditions, and other counterproductive sleep habits such as early bedtimes, and excessive time spent awake in bed are common factors associated with insomnia.

    There are three types of insomnia:
    – Transient, or mild, insomnia – sleep difficulties that last for a few days; there is little or no evidence of impairment of functioning during the day
    – Short-term, or moderate, insomnia – sleep difficulties that last for less than a month, that mildly affect functioning during the day, together with feelings of irritability and fatigue
    – Chronic, or severe, insomnia – sleep difficulties that last for more than a month, that severely impair functioning during the day, and cause strong feelings of restlessness, irritability, anxiety, and fatigue

    Insomnia can have physical and psychological effects. The consequences of insomnia include:

    – Impaired mental functioning. Insomnia can affect concentration and memory, and can affect one’s ability to perform daily tasks.
    – Accidents. Insomnia endangers public safety by contributing to traffic and industrial accidents. Various studies have shown that fatigue plays a major role in automobile and machinery accidents. As many as 100,000 automobile accidents, accounting for 1,500 deaths, are caused by sleepiness.
    – Stress and depression. Insomnia increases the activity of the hormones and pathways in the brain that cause stress, and changes in sleeping patterns have been shown to have significant affects on mood. Ongoing insomnia may be a sign of anxiety and depression.
    – Heart disease. One study reported that people with chronic insomnia had signs of heart and nervous system activity that might put them at risk for heart disease.
    – Headaches. Headaches that occur during the night or early in the morning may be related to a sleep disorder.
    – Economic effects. Insomnia costs the U.S. an estimated $100 billion each year in medical costs and decreased productivity.


    Disorders of excessive sleepiness are called hypersomnias. These include:

    • Sleep apnea
    • Narcolepsy
    • Restless leg syndrome
    • Obstructive sleep apnea
    • Central sleep apnea
    • Idiopathic hypersomnia
    • Respiratory muscle weakness associated sleep disorder

    Sleep apnea more commonly affects obese, people but it may affect others with short necks or a small jaw. The disorder causes breathing to stop intermittently during sleep resulting in people being awakened repeatedly such that they have difficulty achieving prolonged deep sleep and results in excessive daytime sleepiness. Narcolepsy is a condition of daytime sleep attacks as well as other features which may include sleep paralysis and hypnagogic hallucinations. Sleep attacks occur despite adequate sleep at night. Restless leg syndrome is a condition of periodic lower-leg movements during sleep with associated daytime sleepiness, or complaints of insomnia.

    Problems may also occur with maintaining a consistent sleep and wake schedule as a result of disruptions of normal times of sleeping and wakefulness. This occurs when traveling between times zones and with shift workers on rotating schedules, particularly with nighttime workers.

    These disorders include:

    • Sleep state misperception (the person actually sleeps a different amount than they think they do)
    • Shift work sleep disorder
    • Natural short sleeper (the person sleeps less hours than “normal” but suffers no ill effects)
    • Chronic time zone change syndrome
    • Irregular sleep-wake syndrome
  • Products

    Products & Services

    IntraTherapies Institute
    A healthcare company specializing in Age Management Therapeutics, a trademarked discipline directed to age-related degenerative disorders that combines physician-administered, personalized medical treatment with prescribed neuroceutical compounds.

    Audio Sleep

    Help heal sleep apnea and sleeping disorders through guided meditations and visualization.

    CPAP Company

    Offering CPAP, bi-level and asthma machines plus c-pap and asthma equipment and supplies.

    CPAP Deals

    Canadian supplier of CPAP products for the treatment of Sleep Apnea. Heated humidifiers, masks, software and accessories.

    CPAP Depot

    CPAP equipment and supplies, obstructive sleep apnea information, bipap, OSA.

    CPAP Solutions

    Providing public awareness and education regarding Obstructive Sleep Apnea, while giving patients an affordable solution to purchasing equipment and supplies in a secure environment.

    CPAP Supplies Plus/Direct

    Offers a variety of manufacturers as well as hard to find replacement parts and accessories.


    Supplies designed to assist with snoring, and obstructional sleep apnea. Includes headgear, humidifiers and respironics.


    Medical equipment for patients with obstructive sleep apnea.


    Offers CPAP and BiPAP equipment and supplies.

    Phoenix CPAP Services, Inc.

    Distributes the newest in technology CPAP / BiLevel devices.

    Quality of Life, Inc.

    Offering masks, headgear, chin straps and cushions.

    Respertise Pulmonary Services, Inc.

    On-line catalog of respiratory supplies, including CPAP/Bi-level, ventilator, oxygen, asthma and tracheostomy supplies.

    S.L.P. Inc

    R&D and manufacturing of physiological sensors for sleep disorder, research, biofeedback and education.


    The company specializes in CPAP, BiPAP and sleep apnea products. They have 10 certified respiratory care practitioners on staff with over 100 years of combined sleep and respiratory experience.


    Manufactures and distributes sleep apnea disorder products, including the Phantom nasal mask and the IQ.


    CPAP machines and other sleep treatment devices at discount prices.

    the CPAP Store

    CPAP and bi-level sleep disorder equipment and supplies.

    Tri-Med, Inc.

    Manufacturer and distributor of low noise oxygen therapy equipment.

    Sleep paralysis

    A thread dealing with sleep paralysis (1995-1997).

    Sleep Paralysis and Related Experiences

    A comprehensive site dealing with sleep paralysis, hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations.

    The Periodic Paralysis Resource Center

    This site provides information on sleep paralysis as well as daytime paralysis.

  • Clinics

    Centers | Clinics


    Bondi Junction, Centre for Snoring and Sleep Disorders

    Information site for patients and medical professionals dealing with snoring and sleep related conditions. The Centre for Snoring and Sleep Disorders, Bondi Junction, Sydney, Australia.


    The Neuro-psycho-pedagogic center, Mexico, is an interdisciplinary clinic established in 1978 includes a sleep disorders center and also specializes in neurology, psychology, and education.

    Center for Sleep & Chronobiology

    Composed of sleep disorder laboratories and clinics in eight university-affiliated hospitals. The Center provides diagnostic and treatment services as well as conducting research into sleep, wakefulness and biological rhythms.

    Cheshire Center for Sleep Studies, NH

    A cooperative effort between the Cheshire Medical Center and the Dartmouth Sleep Disorder to provide a facility offering evaluation and treatment of the full range of sleep disorders.

    Christ Hospital’s Sleep Disorders Lab

    Christ Hospital’s Sleep Disorders Lab

    Cincinnati Regional Sleep Center

    Patient education, FAQ and location of their various centers.

    Diagnostic Health Services, Inc.

    Services include full polysomnography including respiratory monitoring. Offers two independent sleep disorder testing facilities in Maine.

    HMS Diagnostics, Inc.

    Specialists in the diagnosis of sleep disorders. Located in the heart of the Texas Medical Center. Houston,TX

    Jefferson Health System — Sleep Disorders

    Sleep Center for the Philadelphia Region with generally precise and concise information on sleep disorders.

    Kathryn Severyns Dement Sleep Disorders Center at St. Mary Medical Center

    Prior to full accreditation by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine, the center began as the “Walla Walla Project” which aimed to train primary care physicians to diagnose and treat sleep disorders.

    Mid South Sleep Disorders Clinic

    Tennessee and Louisiana based clinics.

    Midwest Sleep and Neurodiagnostic Institute

    Information and education on various sleep disorders such as sleep apnea, Narcolepsy and insomnia.

    N2 Sleep

    Providing educational and consultative services for people in the field of sleep medicine.

    National Sleep Technologies

    National Sleep Technologies has sleep disorders centers throughout the U.S.

    Newcastle Sleep Disorders Centre (Australia)

    Sleep studies – routine/diagnostic, MSLT (Multiple Sleep Latency Test), and CPAP (Continuous Positive Airway Pressure) trial for apnoea.

    North Bay Sleep Medicine Institute

    Located in Santa Rosa, California. Medical Specialists for snoring, sleep apnea, restless legs and insomnia. Includes information for clinicians, patients and contact details.

    Northside Hospital Sleep Medicine Institute

    A description of the sleep disorders treated here, including sleepwalking, night terrors, sleep related violence, sleep eating, gastroesophageal reflux and childhood sleep disorders. Atlanta,GA.

    Ohio Sleep Medicine Institute

    Sleep disorders clinic with both treatment and research facilities.

    Pacific Sleep Medicine

    Pacific Sleep Medicine provides a panel of board-certified sleep specialists offering consultations, diagnosis, and ongoing medical treatment for any sleep disorder.

    Prescription for Sleep, L.L.C.

    Offering practical solutions for sleep problems in the workplace and in the schoolroom

    Providence Sleep Disorders Center

    Consumer and professional information at this Seattle, WA based medical center site includes ‘Treating Sleep Disorders’, ‘Oral Appliances for Sleep Apnea’, and ‘Pediatric Sleep Disorders’.

    Registered Sleepers

    A service that helps facilities set up, equip and support sleep disordered patients.

    Royal Brompton Hospital, London – Victoria Ward

    Includes a research laboratory in sleep apnoea, and investigates breathing problems in people with neuromuscular disorders.

    Scottish National Sleep Centre

    Sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome (SAHS), narcolepsy, and periodic limb movement syndrome (PLMS). Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh.

    Silent Partners Sleep Clinic

    Located in uptown Toronto, Silent Partners Sleep Laboratory is a seven bed laboratory with state of the art equipment. We diagnose and treat many different kinds of sleep disorders including snoring, sleep apnea, insomnia, periodic leg movement and restless leg syndromes, narcolepsy and parasomnias.

    Silicon Valley’s Sleep Disorders Center

    The Sleep Disorders Center in Silicon Valley with facilities in San Jose/Los Gatos & Palo Alto. Effective treatment for snoring, apnea, chronic fatigue caused by poor sleep.

    Sleep apnea, narcolepsy, hypersomnia and other sleep disorders (Columbus)

    Sleep medicine resources for detection and control of sleep apnea, narcolepsy, hypersomnia, insomnia and sleep disorders.

    Sleep Disorders Center

    Sequoia Health Services. Information about many sleep disorders, including those in children and the elderly. Online sleep test and on-line referrals for physicians.

    Sleep Disorders Center at Newark Beth Israel

    The Sleep Disorders Center at Newark Beth Israel was set up in 1978 and has since diagnosed and treated more than 8,500 patients.

    Sleep Disorders Center of SW Florida

    Learn about this center and its diagnosis and treatment of sleep apnea, insomnia, narcolopsy, and other sleep disorders as well as clinical research. Includes health news and resources.

    Sleep Disorders: a Global Resource

    The Columbus Community Hospital Regional Sleep Disorders Center serves as a source of help for patients from distant points throughout the U.S. and the world.

    Sleep HealthCenters

    Specialized facilities in Massachusetts that provide accurate diagnosis of and effective treatment for patients with sleep-related problems.

    Sleep Laboratory University Of Marburg

    Sleep Laboratory, University Of Marburg, established in 1981 conducts research and treats sleep disorders.

    Sleep Medicine Associates of Texas, P.A.

    Sleep offices and laboratories in the North Texas area, based in Dallas and Plano.

    Sleep Services of America

    An affiliate of Johns Hopkins, HSI Medical Services Corporation/Sleep Services of America is a provider of sleep diagnosis and treatment services in the Mid-Atlantic region.

    Sleep Telemedicine Services

    Details about the center which provides evaluations, consultations, testing and treatment of sleep disorders. Located in Las Vegas, Nevada.

    Sleepcare Diagnostics Home Page

    Sleep Disorders, Cincinnati, Ohio.

    SleepQuest: Treating Sleep Disorders – Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    SleepQuest specializes in treating obstructive sleep apnea and other sleep disorders by providing innovative diagnostic and treatment services in the convenience of the patient’s home.


    Diagnostic center, in a hotel setting. Located in Utah.

    SSRD Anti-Snoring Treatment Center

    Treatment with the Snore/Stress Relieving Device (SSRD). An effective, non-invasive oral device that attacks snoring and obstructive sleep apnea. Dr. Farhad Hakimi, New York.

    Summit Sleep Disorder Center

    Winston-Salem Summit Sleep Disorder Center, North Carolina opened about 15 years ago.

    Sydney Snoring Clinic

    Offers laser surgery for snoring and sleep apnea carried out as an in-office or hospital procedure.

    Synapse Media – Sleep Medicine and Polysomnography

    Synapse Media – an Oregon-based company dedicated to providing training and education in sleep medicine and technology, with emphasis on laboratory methodology and clinical polysomnography.

    Temple University Sleep Disorders Center

    Neurology Department

    Texas Sleep Disorders Center

    Treatment of snoring, sleep apnea, insomnia, night terrors, sleep walking, bed wetting and narcolepsy.

    The Children’s Hospital Medical Center of Cincinnati Sleep Disorders Clinic

    The Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center Sleep Disorders Clinic staff provides a multidisciplinary assessment and assistance with managing sleep problems.

    The London Laser Clinic

    Corrective surgery for snoring and sleep apnoea.

    The London Sleep Centre

    Diagnosis and treatment of sleep disorders including insomnia, and sleep apnoea. Offers scientific diagnostic assessments.

    The Sleep Clinic Network

    Located in Francisco, a full service sleep disorders clinic offering state of the art, comprehensive care. Includes details about the clinic as well as the disorders.

    The Sleep Disorder Clinic

    Information about the facility, the problems, causes, laser treatment, research and contact details.

    The Technion-Sleep Laboratory and Sleep Disorders Center

    This research laboratory located in Israel started before there was a field of sleep medicine.

    The Torrance Center for Sleep

    Practice based in Torrance, California.

    The Vancouver Sleep and Breathing Centre

    The Vancouver Sleep and Breathing Centre is a clinic which specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of Snoring, Sleep Apnea, Asthma, and other common Disorders of Sleep and Breathing.

    UCSF Sleep Disorder Center

    Information on the signs and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of sleep disorders.

    VCU Health Systems Sleep Disorders Center

    Located in Richmond, Virginia. Information on apnea, narcolepsy, insomnia, RLS, and links to other sites.

    Wesley Medical Center’s – Sleep Disorders Center

    Basic information from this Wichita based sleep disorders center.